In an attempt to understand where my German ancestors came from, I have tracked down this useful map from Wikipedia. There was no Germany as we know it in the nineteenth century, rather a confederation of German speaking kingdoms and duchies (the German Confederation or Der Deutsche Bund). On the map below it is Holstein in the far north and Bavaria (Bayern), in the south, which are of interest. Prussia was between them, and the superpower of Austria to the south. Johann Holtorf (later John Holdorf) left Bad Bramstedt, Holstein in 1856, when he was 28 years old. Caroline Fischer, who John would later marry, left Harheim, Bavaria, in 1854, when she was 7 years old. She travelled with her parents, Gottried and Viktoria Fischer, and her three younger brothers, Charles, Heronimys and William. Both Johann and the Fischer family sailed from Hamburg.
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